Thinking Fast And Slow Epub 54
During oral manipulation and swallowing, liquid flow is turbulent, resulting in eddies and vortices . Healthy people can tolerate these factors and cleanly direct liquids past the airway and into the oesophagus. Individuals with dysphagia, however, find the turbulent and fast flow of liquids difficult to control during passage through the pharynx, resulting in impaired airway protection. One of the methods of managing this challenge is to thicken liquids in order that they flow more slowly, allowing the individual time to coordinate safe swallowing . Thickened liquids are not a diet of choice, but one of safety, and have been used therapeutically to manage dysphagia for about 19 years . Although international standards are currently lacking, a review of the recent literature suggests there are at least three levels of viscosity used for the management of dysphagia (Table 1) . Typically the least viscous liquid (akin to the thickness of nectar) is used for mild dysphagia, whilst increasingly thicker liquids are used to manage more severe forms of the condition. Prescription of fluid thickness is patient specific.
Thinking Fast And Slow Epub 54
To test this theory, we administered a decision-making exercise (an iterated dictator game) to about half of the youth in our second BAM study. This exercise made youth think they had been provoked by a classmate and then gave them a chance to retaliate. Our theory predicts BAM youth should slow down and spend more time thinking about how to respond. Our theory does not predict how they will respond, since that depends on what situation they construe themselves to be in. Consistent with our theory, BAM increased decision-making time in response to the provocation by 80%. In terms of the amount of retaliation administered, we found few differences between BAM youth and controls, which does not seem consistent with mechanisms that emphasize changes in factors that would make youth uniformly more pro-social across all situations.
The best-studied genes associated with athletic performance are ACTN3 and ACE. These genes influence the fiber type that makes up muscles, and they have been linked to strength and endurance. The ACTN3 gene provides instructions for making a protein called alpha (α)-actinin-3, which is predominantly found in fast-twitch muscle fibers. A variant in this gene, called R577X, leads to production of an abnormally short α-actinin-3 protein that is quickly broken down. Some people have this variant in both copies of the gene; this genetic pattern (genotype) is referred to as 577XX. These individuals have a complete absence of α-actinin-3, which appears to reduce the proportion of fast-twitch muscle fibers and increase the proportion of slow-twitch fibers in the body. Some studies have found that the 577XX genotype is more common among high-performing endurance athletes (for example, cyclists and long-distance runners) than in the general population, while other studies have not supported these findings. The 577RR genotype is associated with a high proportion of fast-twitch fibers and is seen more commonly in athletes who rely on strength or speed, such as short-distance runners.
Abstract:The double burden of malnutrition refers to the co-occurrence of overweight and obesity and undernutrition. Eating quickly has been linked to overweight and obesity. However, no study has examined the association between eating speed and undernutrition. This retrospective, cross-sectional study analyzed data from 3529 community-dwelling residents. Eating speed was divided into three categories: fast, medium, and slow. Undernutrition was defined as body mass index (BMI) of
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